This paper aims to look at the Victorian State Government's closure of Northland Secondary College on the 20th of November 1992, and the subsequent reopening which occurred after two and a half years of court battles and protests. The following analysis looks closely at the reactions to these events from the media and the Victorian Kennett Government and assesses what can be divulged from such a study. Northland Secondary College claimed, and was announced by many that were associated with the school, that it was a unique institution that offered high education hopes for disadvantaged students, in particular Koori students. The events surrounding Northland Secondary College and it's battle to remain open also mark a significant episode within the history of Victoria and highlight fundamental problems Aboriginal People, particularly students, face within Victoria's education system.
This essay is not simply about a school that fought Government closure and won. It is about a significant event in the history of Aboriginal people in Victoria and the need for their history and difficulties within this society to be acknowledged. The Equal Opportunity Board and the Full Bench of the Supreme Court reopened Northland Secondary College on the grounds of racial discrimination. This ruling grants hope that Aboriginal hardship, particularly in education, is finally acknowledged, at some level, by the mainstream culture within Victoria. However, that the Victorian Kennett Government relentlessly fought this ruling exposes the Government's reluctance to acknowledge Aboriginal hardships and history. This essay will analyse these events, look at why Northland was so special, how the fight took place and the significance of mainstream media and Government response throughout the two and a half year battle. It is important to look at such responses, as they not only reflect public opinion, they reveal gross ignorance within two such influential powers in Victoria - the media and the Government.
To appreciate why Northland, at the time of its closure, was deemed a school worth fighting for, any number of educators, parents or students can give an inquirer many reasons. The media branded Northland as a school of 'outcastsí(1) and 'hard knocks'(2), labels not untrue, yet by no means negative. Northland's success with such students made it a school so worthy to remain open. At the time of closure, the school hosted several programs and VCE (3) subjects that did not exist in "any other school in the area." (4) These included an Aeronautics program where the school was building a piane and receiving instruction from Laverton Aerospace Technology and the Department of Civil Aviation. Graphic and Industrial Design, Fashion, Music, Dance, Drama and Horticulture were among the VCE subjects offered at Northland which were not offered at other schools in Victoria. Several students with disabilities from Croxton Special School were successfully integrated into classes at Northlands. A Retail Skills Programme existed which saw the cohesion of school with industrial experience and TAFE accreditation. A child care centre was on the campus for young mums and a homeless Youth Programme also existed which saw 25-30 homeless students regularly attending school at any one time. Most importantly, particularly to the Equal Opportunity Board and Supreme Court cases that surrounded the reopening of Northland, was the high number of Aboriginal students who attended the school and the 'whole school approach' that attracted them there.
Raffaela Galati-Brown, Principal of Northland both then and now, describes the ëwhole school approachí as exactly that - an approach to education, that involved the whole school and expected the whole school to participate. "It was the aim of this approach to treat students as individuals and to attempt to involve them in a process of receiving an education and in determining the way in which that education could be best relevant for them." (5) Beginning in the late 1980s, two classes per week were dedicated to teaching the students confidence skills how to gain self-esteem. Galati-Brown states that over time, these classes were incredibly successful and students attended class more regularly and with greater interest. All the students responded well, except the Koori students. It became apparent that Northland needed Aboriginal educators to be involved with the 'whole school' approach and soon Lyn Thorpe and Dedrie Bux began working with staff to cater more effectively for the needs of the Koori students. Aboriginal culture and cross-cultural awareness was taught as well as encouraging the Koori students within the areas of their greatest ability, particularly within the performing arts. Koori parents were also encouraged to participate. Gary Foley, a Koori parent at Northland who was heavily committed to reopening the school, describes Northland as "a unique national role model of what's possible if people make an effort to cross communities, communicate with each other and treat each other with mutual respect. It's a microcosm of what Australia could be like one day."(6) Foley's son and student at Northland, Bruce Foley, commented that at Northland the students were respected, that the teachers tried to help the students with difficulties and that they saw and understood the wider issues involved for Aboriginal students. He said that the majority of students were from a range of nationalities and through classes in cultural education, everyone got along very well.(7) Northland was growing and developing into a successful and incredibly nurturing environment for all that were parts of such a unique school. By 1992, Northland Secondary College was regarded by Galati-Brown and members of the wider Koori community as 'reconciliation at work.'(8)
Yet it was not only the school and local Koori community who appreciated the achievements of Northlands Secondary College. Irene Moss, Race Discrimination Commissioner stated, in a letter to Premier Kennett:
It is worth noting that the Royal Commission [into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody] specifically acknowledged the important inroads being made by the very school which you [Premier Jeff Kennett] are planning to close... l am advised that in recent years the school has gained national reputation for its achievements in furthering the education aspirations of Aboriginal People and has become a source of pride amongst the Aboriginal community and amongst the local non-Aboriginal community. In the face of the continual documentation of the problems faced by Aboriginal People, it is important that the progress that is made and the positive achievements be recognized and supported.(9)
Arthur Pearl, Professor of Education at the University of California had worked at Northland, and had found "competent staff meeting the needs of students whose needs were not being met by anyone else."(10) Gwendolyn J. Cooke of the National Association of Secondary School Principals took a group of school administrators from the United States to visit exemplary schools in Sydney, Canberra and Melbourne, one of which was Northland. "The NASSP study mission selected Northland as a visitation site because the school had creatively and systematically developed an instrumental program to attract and retain students labelled ëdisadvantagedí".(11) Dr. Pia Brous, Director of the Victoria Postgraduate Child Psychiatry Program and Senior Lecturer of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Melbourne, wrote a letter of support to Raffaela Galati-Brown. She stated that "this school is well known to me...many students such as those in your school could not be maintained in many mainstream schools and thus their educational future would be most precarious."(12) The National Aboriginal and Islander Legal Services Secretariat, the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service Cooperative LTD, the Secretariat of National Aboriginal Islander Child Care, the Member for Wills, Mr. Phil Cleary and the Minister for the Aged, Family and Health Services Hon Peter Staples MP, also the local member for Jagajaga (13), are among other organizations and individuals who recognized and supported Northland's success. The Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, Hon Robert Tickner MP stated that Northland had been acknowledged "as a school so successful in helping children realise their potential that Aboriginal parents from across Australia have begun enrolling their children there." (14) The strongest support shown for Northland came from the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody. Northland was praised as an 'innovative way of accommodating the special needs of Aboriginal students...[Northland Secondary College] employs two Koori teachers to offer assistance to students and their parents and to serve as role models. The school reports an increase in Koori students staying on to Year 12, with some going onto higher education.í(15)
This overview not only reconfirms the success of Northland but it also reveals the problems Aboriginal people face in obtaining a fair, equal and relevant education. Within the Regional Report of Inquiry in NSW, Victoria and Tasmania, written by Commissioner J.H. Wootten and published in 1991, these wider issues within Aboriginal education are well examined. Wootten states, "by and large...the schools which Aboriginal children have been forced to attend have been culturally hostile environments .The alien character of schools designed to socialise children into a different culture inevitably made schooling a bewildering and unpleasant experience for most Aboriginal children."(16) He discusses Aboriginal education in Victoria and states that many Koori students leave school before the legal age, maintaining that "educational standards in Victoria are still very poor by comparison to other states.''(17) This report is further supported by another Government document circulated by Robert Tickner in 1991. The document outlines a new 'Aboriginal Education Policy' based on the findings of a Government established Aboriginal Education Policy Task Force, instituted in 1988. The report states, "The Task Force reinforced the finding that Aboriginal people are the most educationally disadvantaged group in Australia and recommended that action to address the issues be taken in context of establishing a comprehensive and national long-term approach to Aboriginal education policy."(18)
This exposure of the difficulties for Aboriginal people to obtain an equal and successful education, and the recommendations of Northland Secondary College being an exemplary school for disadvantaged students, contradicts the Victorian Governments actions between 1992 - 1995. On November 20, 1992 Raffaela Galati-Brown received notification from the Director of Secondary Education, Geoff Spring, that Northland Secondary College would close at the end of 1992. The closure of Northland was part of the newly elected Government's education budget cuts, which saw 55 schools closed within this first-round settlement and many more school closures to follow. Northland took action swiftly - by the end of November the 'Northland Koori Community' (NKC) was formed and met regularly with other teachers and parents from Northland to discuss further action. Many letters were written to the Department of Education and a large protest was staged on the steps of Parliament House. On the third of December, Koori students Muthama Sinnappan and Bruce Foley lodged complaints with the Equal Opportunity Board, claiming racial discrimination in the closure of the school because there was no other school in Victoria which provided that same access to the public education system. (19) After some discussion and media attention, The Minister for Education, Don Hayward stated that a deal could be established. He suggested that the school would be reopened if it could raise $1.38 million within the next week. He claimed that the school had been rightfully closed as projected enrolment figures were low and the buildings were in need of extreme repair. He stated, "because of the special nature of the school, l am prepared to consider a proposal under which money that the school raises can be used on Northland's maintenance requirements."(20) Yet this agreement remained unfulfilled. Northland raised a substantial amount of the money needed and could confirm further donations and support. Future enrolments were expected and had been predicted to grow which encouraged the media and Northland Secondary supporters to wonder why the school had been closed in the first place. There had been considerations that perhaps it was a mistake, then further speculations that the site had already been sold. Regardless of the initial reasons, the Government became very dedicated to keeping the school closed.
During December 1992, the President of the Equal Opportunity Board, Margaret Rizkalla, issued a restraining order preventing the closure of the school. On January 15 in the new year, she ruled a stay order stating that all Northland assets and buildings would be preserved until a full hearing was concluded, yet allowed the Government to transfer teachers and the Principal to other schools. This pre-empted Koori educator Dedrie Bux, Koori Intern Lyn Thorpe, retired Principal Bill Maxwell and a group of parents and volunteer teachers to begin staging classes at the Northland site, where 80 students attended. These classes continued throughout 1993 and were named the 'Northland Secondary College Mobile Rebel School'. After a lengthy delay involving financial difficulties, the full Equal Opportunity Board hearing commenced in mid-September. The hearing concluded during December ruling that the Government had discriminated against Koori students at Northland by closing the school. The Board stated, "we cannot find that the financial and other considerations in (closing) Northlands...outweigh the basic right of the Aboriginal students to have as effective access to public education as non-Aboriginal students."(21) The Board ordered the reopening of the school to redress the on-going discrimination. This decision angered the Victorian Government at the power of the Equal Opportunity Board to overturn a Government decision and was soon appealed to the Supreme Court. The appeal also saw the dismissal of Moira Rayner as the Equal Opportunity Board Commissioner and the restructure of the Equal Opportunity Act.
By the end of January 1993, Justice Beach of the Supreme Court had set aside the Equal Opportunity Board's decision and had dismissed the complaint of discrimination. This in turn saw Northland Secondary College complainants' appeal to the Full Bench of the Supreme Court, while the locks on the school were changed and the rebel school evicted. Classes commenced on the lawns of Northland Secondary College, followed by a more permanent home at a sports pavilion in Northcote. By early August 1994 the Full Bench of the Supreme Court had overturned Justice Beach's decision and found that discrimination had occurred. Appropriate redress was referred back to the Equal Opportunity Board. Finally, on the 2nd of December, the Equal Opportunity Board gave draft orders that Northland must reopen for 1995 and on the 14th of December final instructions were given to the Government on reopening the school. The Government again appealed and asked for a stay against the orders which was soon granted by Justice Crockett of the Supreme Court. Another appeal was then established to Chief Justice Phillips for a Full Bench hearing which was finally heard on the 30th January, 1995 which stated the school must be reopen.
The response of the mainstream media and the Government to the Northland battle and the interpretation of this response, exposes great underlying problems in Victoria associated with acknowledging the hardships within education for Aboriginal people. This conclusion can be made as the most obvious oversight of both groups is in their attention to the uniqueness of Northland and its importance in giving Aboriginal students equal access to the Victorian education system. These vital fundamental issues are a glaringly obvious exclusion and again express the reluctance of mainstream Victorian culture to acknowledge Aboriginal history and inequality. The mainstream media focused upon in this study consists of Melbourne newspapers The Age, The Herald Sun and The Australian. Of 122 articles studied from these papers regarding Northland between November 1992 and February 1995, only three attempted to discuss and analyse deeper issues involved. Of the 97.54% remaining, not one questioned reasons why Northland was so important to the Aboriginal community, why racial discrimination had occurred and what problems for race issues this may raise in Victoria. It seems from these figures that mainstream media refused to see the racial significance of the Northland battle or were simply too ignorant to know it was there.
The most revealing and controversial opinion of The Age which was echoed in several articles during early 1993, is aptly summarized by this 'Editorial' opinion:
Unfortunately, the Northland teachers and parents appear to be allowing emotion to cloud their reason... The protestors would be better advised to accept the inevitability of the closure and act instead to ensure that the 65 Koori students are enrolled at one of the 3 nearby schools that have offered to take the Koori programs. Northlands was in fact, a logical candidate for closure given the Government's unquestioned need to cut its education budget. Its future enrolments seemed certain to decline, its buildings dilapidated and nearby schools were easily able to absorb its 507 students...lt would be tragic if Northlands teachers and parents sacrificed their own notable achievements and jeopardized the education of their children, in an act of defiance that cannot ultimately succeed.(22)
This editorial, not only shows the ignorance of the writer in believing the Koori students and Koori programs could be easily and successfully moved, but contradicts information printed in The Age a month earlier in an article entitled, 'Outcasts cast out'(23) which gave many examples of how difficult it was for Northlands students, particularly the Koori students, to succeed at other schools. Northland being a 'logical candidate' for closure due to enrolments declining was again previously contradicted within another The Age article written in December 1992 which stated "Northland's overall enrolment is projected to grow."(24) Yet not only are there contradictions, the writer's attitude towards Northland is extremely slanderous and was heavily criticised by Moira Rayner, commissioner for the Equal Opportunity Board, through a letter printed in The Age. Rayner criticized The Age for propagating ideas against the case of racial discrimination.
Yet ignorance was not
the only downfall of mainstream media journalists during the Northland
battle. Many articles focused on irrelevant issues or passed over key issues
with disregard. An article about Don Hayward spent more time concentrating
on what he eats for breakfast, "Hayward sits at a window table...sipping
coffee and fingering a croissant," (25) than questioning why the Government
failed to observe the recommendations of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal
Deaths in Custody. Flippant reporting of significant issues was yet another
weakness. Examples such as "A public raily to save Northland, which has
a special Aboriginal program, will be staged on the steps of Parliament
House..."(26) or "Northland, catering for Aborigines, yesterday formally
lodged a complaint ... against its closure arguing it amounts to racial
discrimination,"(27) are indicative of such reporting. The involvement
of Aboriginal people and the historical importance of such a case based
on racial discrimination are lightly mentioned without investigation or
explanation. It seems that so often issues that were not only key elements
within the Northland battle but issues that also raise significant questions
concerning racial equality in Victoria were overlooked or passed by.
However, the 2.46% of studied articles that do attempt to divulge greater issues raised by the Northland battle deserve some attention as well.(28). One of which is 'Outcasts are cast out', mentioned earlier, that addresses the hardships Aboriginal students face within the Victorian education system. Another is entitled 'Overcoming fictions in our history'. This article attempts to look at broad issues between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people and discusses the common non-Aboriginal rejection of feeling guilt about the past treatment of Aboriginal people. The author finishes stating, "I suspect we are at a critical period in black-white relations in Australia. The first buds of a genuine reconciliation are beginning to be seen. Northland Secondary College is one of them."(29) The third is an editorial opinion, printed in August 1994 in The Age and shows a complete change of opinion:
It is a tragedy for many of the former students of Northland Secondary College that it has taken eighteen months, two hearings in the Equal Opportunity Board and two in the Supreme Court to demonstrate what the school supporters, backed by the Equal Opportunity Board in its first finding in December 1992, contended: that Northland had developed a special model for the education of Koori children that would be difficult, and perhaps impossible to replace. (30)
This editor's new found insight raises questions as to why it took so long (printed almost two full years after the closure) for the newspaper to explore why Northland was a success and why it was so important to the Aboriginal students who were enrolled there. The article attempts to excuse it's earlier contradictory opinions, blaming the newspaper's initial ideas on 'expert, objective advice', which the editor now sees as incorrect. The editor also states that the Government was 'misguided.' Although this article falls into the 2.46% of better-researched articles, it still shows signs of it shady past in the 97.54% of ignorant or flippant articles by taking so long to acknowledge all the facts surrounding the Northland battle.
However, this 2.46% can still represent a small ray of hope that perhaps Victoria is on a slow move towards acknowledging and understanding Aboriginal history and hardship. As for the 97.54% of articles studied, which continue to fuel ignorance in Victoria, they are not alone. The attitudes of the Victorian Kennett Government, revealed through letters, press statements and actions, are not dissimilar to those of the mainstream media.
The Government's behaviour displays ignorance and lack of understanding towards the problems Aboriginal people face within the Victorian education system and the significance of Northland. Earlier quotes and support for Northland by politicians are deceptive. They appeared concerned about the school yet rarely acted upon it. During 1992 when Don Hayward stated that if $1.38 million could be raised the school may remain open, Geoff Spring wrote in several letters, "you should note that it is still the Minister's opinion that the programs offered at Northlands could also be offered at a range of other suitable secondary colleges."(31) Don Hayward himself stated in a letter to Galati-Brown, "I have guaranteed that the Koori Education program and resources will be transferred to a neighbouring school."(32) Even though the Government endorsed the findings of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody that stated Northland was a success and should be supported, the Government still maintained that Northland should close. This again reveals ignorance of what was achieved at Northland and that a successful 'whole school' approach requires a whole school. Premier Kennett's attitudes, represented by the media, seemed to have little to do with moving education programs or education at all. It became a display of strength for the new State Government. Mr. Kennett declared to The Australian "regardless of what may happen out in the broader community, particularly by the minority, the Government is under no pressure and in no way will back down."(33) Later in 1994 he stated to The Herald Sun that "the battle was over the power of the Government versus the Equal Opportunity Board as a decision-making body."(34) He believed the Board's ruling was "ëa most extraordinary decision' setting a dangerous precedent that had to be challenged despite the legal cost."(35) The board did in fact state that the Minister was 'incorrectly advised' in believing the Koori program at Northland could be moved, which prompted Galati-Brown to state that "the closure of the school was a mistake - the bureaucrats bungled."(36)
The significance of Northland Secondary College, it's closure by the Victorian Kennett Government, it's fight based on complaints of racial discrimination and the school's eventual reopening, cannot be underestimated. The general media representation and the Government's attitude and actions against the school, each expose extreme ignorance towards problems Aboriginal people face within the Victorian education system. Aboriginal people within Australia are not receiving education as effectively and as equally as non-Aboriginal people and as a consequence have far less chance at the same opportunities. This inequality has been acknowledged by educators, parents, students and Government investigations, which evokes serious questioning about the decision to close Northland, the Government's relentless fight to keep the school closed and the unsatisfactory coverage by the mainstream media. The behaviour of the Government and the media is important as they are two very influential powers within Victoria, which effect the opinions of the general public. Aboriginal people in Victoria do not have equal access to a fulfilling education. This is an undeniable injustice that requires full acknowledgment and rectification and is simply not being achieved by such relentless ignorance by the two most influential organizations in this community. However, as unforgiving as this may seem, those who realise the injustices within this society do exist. Perhaps they only make up 2.46% of the population but they do acknowledge the hardships Aboriginal people face within Victoria and the success and importance of Northland Secondary College.
1. Slattery, Luke. 'Outcasts
are cast out', The Age 5112192.
2. Richards, Mike. 'Schools of hard knocks', The Age 20/11/92.
3. Victorian Certificate of Education, years 11 & 12
4. Galati-Brown, Raffaela, Principal NSC. Quoted from letter sent to Education Minister Don Hayward, 24/11/92.
5. Galati-Brown, Kaffaela. 'An education for all: Northland Secondary College story.' Speech given to Unitarian Church 18/6/1995.
6. Foley, Gary and Porter, Russell. Northlands documentary script, Vixen Films Pty Ltd,1996. P 16.
7. Foley, Bruce. Interview 12.5.1999.
8. Galati-Brown, Raffaela. Interview 17/5/1999 and 'An education for all: Northland Secondary College story.' Speech given to Unitarian Church by Galati-Brown,18/6/1995.
9. Letter from Irene Moss, Race Discrimination Commissioner to Premier Jeff Kennett, 2/12/1992.
10. Pearl, Arthur. Professor of Education, University of Education. Letter to Raffaela Galati-Brown 21/11/92.
11. Cooke, Gwendolyn J. Director of Urban Sources, National Association of Secondary School Principals, Virginia.
12. Brous, Pia. Director of the Victoria Postgraduate Child Psychiatry Program and Senior Lecturer of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Melbourne. Letter to Raffaela Galati-Brown, 4/12/1992.
13. Staples, Peter. The Minister for Aged, Family and Health Services, letter of support to Raffaela Galati-Brown, 26/11/1992.
|4. Tickner, Robert. Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, quoted in 'Closure a clear breach - Tickner.' In The Herald Sun, 28/11/92.
15. Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, National Report, Volume 4, 33.1.120 pp. 335. 1991.
16. Wootten, J.H. Commissioner The Honorable Ac, QC. Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody: Regional Report of Inquiry in NSW, Victoria and Tasmania. Australian Government Publishing Service,1991. Part 7, Chpt.1, pp.360.
17. Wootten, J.H. Commissioner The Honorable Ac, QC. Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody: Regional Report of Inquiry in NSW, Victoria and Tasmania. Australian Government Publishing Service,1991. Part 7, Chpt.1, pp.365.
i8. ëSocial Justice for Indigenous Australians 1991-1992'. Circulated by Hon. Robert Tickner, M.P., Minister for Aboriginal Affairs Assisting the PM for Aboriginal Reconciliation. Budget Related Paper No.7. Australia Government Publishing Service,1991. Pp.25.
19. Galati - Brown, Raffaela. ëAn education for all: Northland Secondary College story.í Speech given to Unitarian Church 18/6/1995.
20. Hayward, Don. Minister for Education, quoted in 'School in $1mil Survival Fight', by Claire Heaney and Felicity Dargan, Herald Sun, 10/12/1992.
21. Equal Opportunity Board Ruling quoted in 'Kooris jubilant over Northland Reprieve' by Gareth Boreham, The Age, 8/12/1993.
22. Editorial Opinion, 'Northland: no case for sparing school,' The Age 22/1/1993.
23. Slattery, Luke. 'Outcasts are cast Out,' The Age 5/12/1992.
24. Muller, Dennis. 'A tale of four schools,' The Age 4/12/1992.
25. Dargan, Felicity. 'Groups join to fight Government school cuts,í Herald Sun 27/11/1992.
26. Gettler, Leol and Megan Backhouse. ëMore Unions join to stopwork,í The Age 27/11/1992.
27. Heaney, Claire. ëTeachers to take fight to court,í The Herald Sun 4/12/1992.
28. Not included here are many articles printed in local, non-mainstream newspapers such as Koori Mail, Preston Post, Northcote Leader and The Melbourne Times. These papers were much more sympathetic, quoted less politicains and focused more on the situations of local community members.
29. Flanagan. ëOvercoming fictions in our historyís past,í The Age 26/12/1992.
30. Editorial Opinion, 'Lessons from Northland', The Age 8/8/1994.
31. Spring, Geoff. Quote from letter to Raffaela Galati-Brown, 14/12/1992 and letter 15/12/1992.
32. Hayward, Don. Letter to Raffaela Galati-Brown, 16/12/1992.
33. The Australian, article title and author unknown, 25/11/1992.
34. 'Police remove school workers', author unknown, The Herald Sun, 21/12/1994.
35. 'New battle in school", author unknown, The Herald Sun, 16/12/1994.
36. Galati-Brown, Raffaela. 'An education for all: Northland Secondary College story.' Speech given to Unitarian Church by Galati-Brown, 18/6/1995.
'National Review of Education
for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peopies: Summary and Recommendations.'
'Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, National Report', Volume 4, 33.1.120 Pub. Australian Government Publishing Service, Commonwealth of Australia 1991.
Foley, Gary and Porter, Russell. Northlands documentary film script, Vixen Films Pty Ltd, 1996.
Tickner, Hon. Robert. (circulated by) M.P., Minister for Aboriginal Affairs Assisting the PM for Aboriginal Reconciliation. 'Social Justice for Indigenous Australians 1991 - 92.', Budget related Paper No 7, pb: Aust Govt. Pub. Service 1991.
Wootten, Ac, QC. Commissioner The Honourable J.H., 'Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody: Regional Report of Inquiry in NSW, Vic and Tas.' Pub: Aust Govt. Pub. Service, 1991.
Foley, Bruce. 12/5/1999.
Foley, Gary. 10/5/1999.
Galati-Brown, Raffaela. 17/5/1999.
'NASSP'The National Assoc. of Secondary School Principals - Gwendolyn J. Cooke PH.D Director of Urban Sources, NASSP, Virginia 15/12/1992.
'SNAICC'- Secretariat National Aboriginal Islander Child Care by Nigel D'Souza 19/1/1993.
Arthur Pearl Ph. D, Professor of Education, University of California Santa Cruz 21/11/1992.
Don Hayward to Mary Atkinson (VAEAI) 13/10/1994.
Don Hayward to Raffalea Galati-Brown 10/12/1992.
Don Hayward to Raffaela Galati-Brown 16/12/1992.
Dr. Pia Brous, Director of the Victoria Postgraduate Child Psychiatry Training 4/12/1992.
Gary Foley to Geoff Spring 1 1/3/1993.
Gary Foley, press release 1/2/1994.
Gary Foley, press release 81811993.
Geoff Spring (Director of Secondary Education) to Raffaela Galati-Brown 14/12/1992.
Geoff Spring to 'Parents of students enrolled at NSC.' 17/12/1992.
Geoff Spring to Dedrie Bux 6/4/1994.
Geoff Spring to Gary Foley 15/4/1994.
Geoff Spring to Gary Foley 31311993.
Geoff Spring to Parents NSC 11/1/1993.
Geoff Spring to Raffaela Galati-Brown 15/12/1992.
Geoff Spring to Raffaela Galati-Brown 20/11/1992.
House of Reps, Standing Committee on ATSI Affairs to Raffaela Galati-Brown 19/8/1994.
Irene Moss - Race Discrimination Commissioner to Premier Kennett 2/12/1992.
Koori community meeting with NSC minutes 23/11/1992.
Lionel Bamblett, manager of VAEAI from Fed. Pres Sharan Burrow of Australian Education Union. 7/10/1994.
Lionel Bamblett, manager of VAEAI to Gary Foley 19/9/1994.
Mandaway Yunupinga Chair, Ref. Group overseeing the Review of Education for ATSI people 18/8/1994.
Minister for Aged, Family and Health Services Hon Peter Staples MP (media release) also Member for Jagajaga 26/11/1992.
National Aboriginal and Islander legal Services Secretariat to Don Hayward from Sam Wtson (NAILSS) 20/8/1994.
Northland Secodary College press release 22/2/1994.
Raffaela Galati- Brown to Education Minister Mr. Hayward 24/11/1992.
The Hon Robert Tickner MP Minister for ATSI Affairs 27/11/1992
University of NSW St George Campus from Rhonda Cravess and Charles Moran (Bundjelung Elder) - University of NSW Standing Committee: Australian Indigenous Studies for Teacher Education Courses to Don Hayward 31/8/1994.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES (chronological order - not all listed)
HERALD SUN 'Tears of
AGE 'Closure adds disbelief to disadvantaged' 21/11/1992.
PRESTON POST TIMES 'Three schools axed' 23/11/1992.
AGE 'Two sides of the Debate' 24/11/1992.
AGE editorial opinion 'Room to Negotiate as School reforms' 25/11/1992
AGE 'Northlands protesters step up campaign'25/11/1992.
AGE 'More Unions join in stopwork' Leol Gettler & Megan Backhouse 27/11/1992.
HERALD SUN 'Groups join to fight Government school cuts' Felicity Dargan 27/11/1992
HERALD SUN 'Closure a clear breach - Tickner' Claire Heaney 28/11/1992.
AGE 'A tale of 4 schools' by Ross Muller 4/12/1992.
HERALD SUN 'Teachers take fight to court' Clare Heaney 4/12/1992.
HERALD SUN 'School spared - for $1 mil' Felicity Dargan 9/12/1992.
HERALD SUN 'School in $1mil Survival Fight' C.Heaney & F.Dargan 10/12/1992.
AGE 'Fight Won, Party begins' Martin Flanagan 10/12/1992.
AGE 'Emerging from the shadows' - Sunday 13/12/1992.
AGE 'Hayward closes coliege a week after its reprieve' by David Bruce 17/12/1992.
HERALD SUN 'Reprieve a con - school' by C. Heaney 17/12/1992
AGE 'School ask board for an order to stop closure' by Tim Pegler 18/12/1992.
HERALD SUN 'schools win time to fight closure' 19/12/1992.
HERALD SUN 'Legal fight 'delaying' recovery." Mathew Pinkney 19/12/1992.
AGE 'Howe may appeal to PM over Northland Closure.' 21/12/1992.
AGE 'Overcoming fictions in our history' Flanagan 26/12/1992.
AUSTRALIAN 'Kennett raid on college savings' 29/12/1992.
AGE 'Aborigines take culture on? ' David Bruce 11/1/1993. I
AGE'Displaced students move, but challenge loom'. Denis Muller. 19/1/1993. |
HERALD SUN 'Teachers to defy closure.' 20/1/1993.
AGE 'Schools marked for closure go to court.' David Bruce 21/1/1993.
HERALD SUN 'Cold War on Schools' [anti Govt] by Claire Heady 21/1/1993.
AGE 'Court bid to overturn school ruling." P. Gregory 22/1/1993.
AGE editoriai 'Northland: no case for sparing school' 22/1/1993.
HERALD SUN 'Koori teachers stay put.'29/1/1993.
AGE editorial 'Northland, Richmond are no longer schools.' 27/1/1993.
AGE letters Moira Rayner, commissioner for Equal Opportunity and Alan Goldberg 29/1/1993.
HERALD SUN 'Countdown to Closure' by Clare Heaney 271911993.
HERALD SUN 'Ruling to Save School'Claire Heaney 8/12/1993.
AUSTRALIAN 'Board order college reopened' Carolyn Jones 8/12/1993.